Systematic Review

The Association Between Mental Disorders and Postoperative Outcomes of Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


Department of Orthopedic, Wenzhou Central Hospital, Wenzhou, China

Alpha Psychiatry 2024; 25: 142-149
DOI: 10.5152/alphapsychiatry.2024.231431
Read: 2120 Downloads: 2256 Published: 29 April 2024

Background: Mental disorders may adversely impact postoperative recovery in scoliosis surgery. However, study findings have been inconsistent and a systematic synthesis is lacking.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library for studies examining associations between preoperative mental disorders, assessed by various scales, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire (MSPQ), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and postoperative outcomes, such as pain, disability, quality of life, and satisfaction, in scoliosis surgery. Random-effects meta-analyses pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) in postoperative outcomes between patients with and without mental disorders. Results: Twelve observational studies were included for the systematic review, and 5 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis demonstrated significantly worse postoperative outcomes in patients with mental disorders compared to those without (SMD −1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] −3.08 to −0.84, P < 0.001). Significant heterogeneity was present (I 2 = 76%). Review of included studies found mental disorders linked to higher preoperative pain/disability and lower quality of life/satisfaction, as well as worse postoperative scores on these outcomes. Moderating factors identified included mental disorder severity, treatment specifics, and patient demographics.

Conclusion: Preoperative mental disorders, especially depression and anxiety, are associated with significantly worse postoperative pain, disability, quality of life, and satisfaction in scoliosis surgery. This association may be mediated by psychological factors, such as catastrophizing, self-criticism, and kinesiophobia, and biological factors, such as inflammation, neuroendocrine changes, and central sensitization. Routine psychological screening and interventions for high-risk patients may improve postoperative outcomes but not necessarily surgical effectiveness. Further research is warranted to confirm these findings and elucidate optimal treatment approaches.

Cite this article as: Ye L, Lin S, Lv Y, Ge C, Chen X. The association between mental disorders and postoperative outcomes of scoliosis surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Alpha Psychiatry. 2024;25(2):142-149.

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